The organized crime
Mafia, the organized crime (mafia, organized crime) - hierarchically organized groups of criminals, collectively and regularly engaged criminal crafts.
The term "mafia" has appeared in the middle 19 century and was originally used only for a designation of the organized crime on Sicilies (Italy). The ethymology of this term from the Sicilian dialect is not clear, more often it is translated as " by the defender, the patron ". After in the middle 20 century the Sicilian organized crime has won loud "popularity" in the Europe, and in the underworld of the USA the organization of italo-Americans has started to play an in the lead role, the word "mafia" became nominal (especially, in mass-media) for a designation of any strong criminal organization.
Criminologists mean activity the organized crime only professional criminals (gangsters), distinguishing from it "belovorotnichkovuyu" (economic) criminality. In a life and in mass-media, however, "mafia" any collectives of the offenders having greater authority (in our country write, say, about " official mafias " or even to " a militian mafia ") often name.
The large criminal organizations, engaged criminal crafts internationally, slightly. Such organizations as a mafia of Sicily, American "Cosa nostra", Japanese yakudza, the Chinese triads are most known. In last third 20 century more and more active role began to play the new criminal organizations - Latin American narkokarteli, Russian and Albanian mafia, the nigerian criminal organizations. Contrary to opinion about vezdesuschnosti mafias, in the majority of the countries of the world the large and influential mafia organizations are absent.
Mafia as system of criminal firms. The organized crime is so old, as well as a civilization: piracy flotillas and the predatory gangs meet already on the very first pages of history. However the modern organized crime has arisen only about hundred years ago and has basic differences from the criminal organizations doindustrial'nyh societies.
The traditional organized crime (as an example it is possible to recollect, for example, pirates of Caribbean sea 17 century or a gang well-known Kartusha, "king" of the Parisian robbers of the beginning 18 century) has been entirely based on violence. The modern organized crime, on the contrary, makes mainly " crimes without victims " - is engaged in activity from which win (is even illusory) not only criminals, but also those who use their services.
Domestic and foreign criminologists unanimously emphasize following basic characteristics of the organized crime:
Stability and long duration,
Aspiration to maximization of profit,
Planning of activity,
Division of labour, differentiation on heads of a different level and executors - experts of a different structure,
Creation of monetary insurance stocks ("obschakov").
All these attributes copy prominent features of legal capitalist business. It is not casual: the modern organized crime is, in essence, special branch of business - the economic activities of professional criminals directed on satisfaction of antisocial and extremely scarce needs of ordinary citizens (manufacture of the goods forbidden by the law and services).
The treatment of the modern organized crime as mainly economic phenomenon for a long time has found reflection in its official definitions. For example, in the USA the law 1968 characterizes the organized crime as " illegal activity of members vysokoorganizovannoi and the disciplined association, an engaged delivery of the goods forbidden by the law or granting of the services forbidden by the law ". And in 1993 Secretary general of the United Nations in the report Influence of the organized criminal activity on a society has defined the organized crime as activity of the criminals who have united on an economic basis for granting of illegal services and the goods or for granting of lawful services and the goods in the illegal form.
While criminals were engaged purely "pereraspredelitel'noi" in activity (thefts, robberies, etc.), they did not require creation of the stable organizations. Only when there was a criminal manufacture (sex-industry, a gaming, narkobiznes, etc.), among criminals there was a division of labour (first of all - division into heads-leaders and ordinary executors), demanding the steady organizations. From the end 19 century, with the advent of the markets of the forbidden goods, are formed headed by criminal authorities " mafia firms ", engaged the organization of "industrial" mutual relations of criminals of different "specialities".
The criminal organizations divide spheres of influence (territory, kinds of activity), agreeing about rules of cooperation and a competition. Peace officers often join in a mafia network - they receive from a mafia of a bribe (or other useful services, for example, the help in restraint of unorganized criminality) that do not show "excessive" service eagerness. Unorganized criminals also participate in system of private contracts as some kind of "subcontractors" of the criminal organizations. Acquiring the right to act the territory controllable by the criminal organization, unorganized criminals pay to her for it "tribute". As a result of adjustment by a mafia of system of private contractual attitudes the atmosphere some kind of " the public consent " is created.
The model of the criminal organization as systems of private contracts practically without application of violence (Fig.) has obobschenno-abstract character. The real organized crime aspires to this ideal, but not always it reaches. To the greatest degree to him there corresponds the organized crime of Japan which operates quite openly, supporting communications with police.
Mafia as the shadow government. The treatment of the organized crime as system of criminal firms demands specification. In fact almost all the criminal organizations which are considered typical (mafia "families" of Italy, yakudza in Japan, the Chinese triads, etc.), have arisen still before the illegal markets were generated. The markets of the illegal goods (drugs, " the alive goods ", the weapon, the antiques, the stolen motor vehicles, etc.) began to develop only after the First world war, however all the well-known mafia communities (except for American "Cosa nostra") actively operated at least from the middle 19 century
The matter is that transformation of criminal communities into similarity of legal firms corresponds to high enough level of their development. At early stages the mafia organizations played a role, more likely, some kind of the shadow governments. Subsequently these functions noticeably weakened, but completely did not disappear. To prove it, we shall consider racket-business with which, as a rule, and the history of any mafia organization begins.
Racket is a gathering by gangsters of "tribute" under threat of causing physical and property harm. Collecting a tribute, the criminal organization guarantees to the businessmen imposed by "tribute" protection from vymogatel'stv other criminal groups or criminals-singles. To receive a stable payment, racketeers aspire to incur a role of the Supreme arbitrator in the disputable situations connected with receivership proceeding between the clients (promissory notes, execution of contract agreements).
Being engaged in racket, the criminal organization sells services on protection of the property rights - protection against all criminal elements, including from members of the given organization. Law-enforcement services always carry to number of the public blessings which manufacture is monopoly of the state. Therefore development should be considered racket-business as the form of creation of the shadow erzac-government competing to the official government.
Having begun with monopolization of publicly-legal functions, the large criminal organizations pass to monopolization of separate kinds of criminal manufacture - carry out some kind of "nationalization". Each criminal organization aspires to create instead of a gangster market economy gangster command economy, completely having replaced a competition the centralized management. However to the full it is practically impracticable. One of the reasons consists that the more largly and more strongly the criminal organization, the above probability, that she becomes object of prosecution by forces of the law and order, concerned by occurrence of the alternative center of authority (so was, for example, with Medel'inskim narkokartelem in Colombia). When the state becomes stronger, it always stops claims of the organized crime for political authority.
Thus, the developed organized crime appears not as " the shadow government ", and as a network of the locally-monopolistically firms similar to sovereign princedoms between which the competition for repartition old and development of the new markets does not stop.
Mafia business. " In a basis of activity of the organized crime the social order lays ", American criminologist R.Klark writes. Mafia criminal activity - crimes of a special sort, " the crimes made by a mutual consent, crimes which fulfilment is wished by consuming public " (Clark R.Prestupnost in the USA., Progress, 1975. With. 86). It means, that the organized crime develops only there and then, where and when objectively arises steady and a great demand on the forbidden goods and services. For example, wide scope of criminal racket in Russia 1990 was generated by a great demand of businessmen on protection in an atmosphere of weak protection of the property rights, revelry of "usual" criminality, low efficiency of law-enforcement bodies, absence of the conventional rules of competitive struggle.
Economy of the organized crime - diversificirovannaya the economy based on a combination of different kinds of business.
The mafia (as well as legal firms) tries " to not put all eggs in one basket ". So, during an epoch of " the dry law " the American gangsters received the basic incomes from butlegerstva, but simultaneously continued to supervise prostitution and started to master gembling (the forbidden gamblings) and narkobiznes. The estimation of structure of incomes of the modern international organized crime shows, that drugs, the basic modern criminal craft, nevertheless give only half of cumulative incomes of a mafia. The mafia often combines two directions of economic activities - illegal manufacture where greater money earn, and legal manufacture where this money "are washed". As a result the economy of the developed organized crime looks as an iceberg: on a kind - legal, rather malodohodnyi in itself business (for example, processing vtorsyr'ya), " under water " - highly remunerative illegal business (for example, narkobiznes). The mafia economy gets such form at that stage of the development when the mafia aspires "vrasti" in official system, not breaking off with criminal crafts.
Mafia business can make for leaders of the organized crime very high profit. We shall tell, italo-American the organized crimes ("Cosa nostra") in 1980 estimated incomes in 50-130 billion dollars, that in tens times more annual profit of the largest corporations of the USA. As to a degree of riches Latin American narkobaronov it is known, for example, that in 1984 Medel'inskii the cartel suggested the government of Colombia to pay an external duty of this country in 13 billion dollars in exchange for amnesty and legalization of cartel. Annual net profits Colombian narkokartelei were estimated in the beginning 1990 in 4-5 billion dollars, narkokartelei Mexico - nearby 2,5 billion dollars a year.
Back of high total profit of a mafia are not less high costs. We shall tell, at transportation of drugs law enforcement bodies intercept approximately 10 % of all cargoes. As a result of collision with police or with competitors the mafia businessman risks to leave freedom or even with a life. The original insurance is regular payoff of police and politicians - on bribes leaves about 1/3 total profits. At "washing up" of criminal capitals of loss make 5-10 %. Danger of death is born often even with dialogue with the buyer (for example, the addict can kill the street drug-dealer).
By virtue of all these reasons the average level of net profit of members of the criminal organizations is not too great, and its legal use is strongly complicated. Mafia "career" is attractive only to natives of poor layers. Any Mafiosi in one country of the world did not become really large businessman.
The uniform national criminal organization is not present anywhere. Even in Italy, besides the Sicilian mafia, there are criminal organizations some smaller scale - Neapolitan kamorra and kalabriiskaya ndrangeta which act that as partners contenders of the Sicilian Mafiosis.
In order to prevent losses from self-destructive interstine struggle the territories attractive to criminal crafts, share on the areas fixed to separate mafia groups. The central management of gangster community (for example, "dome" at the Sicilian mafia) if it is, carries out coordinating functions to similarly national unions of businessmen in legal branches. The mafia community as a result represents federation concerning independent, often the conflicting organizations. The main boss of a mafia individually supervising the organized crime across the nation, - a figure absolutely mythical.
On "site" each mafia group operates exclusively, but from time to time there is a repartition of territories " on force " (often during mafia "razborok"). The centralized coordinating bodies of a mafia are called to reduce costs of internal struggle, to enter it into " a peace channel ". However mafia wars still happen not only between competing criminal syndicates (" war of cartels " in Colombia in 1988, gangster wars in Russia 1990), but also inside of them ("war" of clans of the Sicilian mafia in 1980-1983).
Alongside with typical general characteristics, each concrete mafia organization has also features. We shall consider the some people " national models " the organized crimes.
"Cosa nostra". Market factors of development of the organized crime are most precisely traced on an example of the underworld of the USA. Having generated later, than in other countries, he initially has been burdened by is patriarchal-clan traditions in much smaller degree, than the other "national" criminal organizations. Therefore he has more quickly reached an organizational maturity - transition from traditional type of the organized crime to modern type.
Bases of criminal business of the USA are incorporated in 19 century when the first organized criminal groups began to be formed. Originally they were engaged mainly in a robbery, the control over prostitution and racket of fine businessmen.
"Hour of triumph" of the American organized crime became an epoch of " the dry law " (1920-1933). Though the congress has approved 18-th amendment to the Constitution, forbidden manufacture, sale, transportation, export and import of spirits, however Americans have not refused at all from vinopitiya. Butlegerstvo (illegal trade in alcohol) it has appeared vysokopribyl'nym business: the bottle of whisky bought outside the country for 15 dollars, was on sale in the USA already for 80 dollars the same years a mafia has mastered industrial racket, having grasped the control over some kinds of "dirty" jobs (as, for example, unloadings and transportations of cargoes).
In the underworld of America of this period the leaging role was played by the gangsters of the Italian origin leading a family tree from the Sicilian mafia. In 1929 at assembly of leaders of criminal business in Atlantic City (the leading part in its organization the well-known gangsters Charles Luchiano have played and Frenki Kostello) organizational registration of the italo-American criminality has been completed. Since this moment each "family" operates strictly in the territory, being coordinated with other "families" through the central advice ("commission") consisting of bosses of largest "families". The criminal organization of italo-Americans it is accepted to name conditionally "Cosa nostra" (with ital. - " our business "), she till now is considered the strongest (though far not unique) the criminal organization of the USA.
After a cancelling of " the dry law " the basic source of gangster incomes became operation of gamblings, as forbidden (in the majority of staffs), and resolved (in Las Vegas, on Cuba, etc.). " The spark craft " - loans - gave players, fine businessmen and other persons which crediting legal loan establishments refused greater profit (the interest rate thus reached 150 % a week).
The new stage of history of the American gangsterism - an epoch narkobiznesa - has begun in 1970. The American criminal groupings have mastered this business still in 1920 (then it was supervised with the Jewish mafia), however demand for drugs was rather insignificant. After sharp expansion of the market of drugs under influence to " youth revolution " 1960 narkobiznes began to give the most significant share of incomes of the American organized crime.
Organizational "Cosa nostra" is confederation of 24 "families". They operate basically in large cities of Northeast and the Average West of the USA and unite approximately 5-7,5 thousand person.
The Sicilian mafia. If in history of the American mafia racket was only one of episodes in other countries this form of criminal business prospered much longer. The Sicilian mafia began almost 200 years ago with agricultural racket, extorting a payment from the rich land owners leasing the ground, and from fine subtenants. Later, already in 20 century, she began to supervise trade in agricultural products. Last "fruit-and-vegetable" war between the Sicilian Mafiosis when spheres of influence in the markets shared, has passed in the middle 1950.
In 1950-1960-e the Sicilian mafia actively masters building business. In 1957, under influence of the American colleagues from "Cosa nostra", siciliicy have finished organizational registration - have created supervising joint body ("dome" or "kapitul"), which members of steel leaders of the districts consisting of 2-3 mafia clans. During same time siciliicy start to be engaged in transit of heroin that becomes in 1970 basis of prosperity of a mafia, and actively take root into legal business. A basis of legal mafia business became construction and ground gamble.
In the beginning 1990 Sicilian mafia consisted of 253 clans (from them 67 - in Palermo), members uniting more 6,5 thousand. Last years 20 century Sicilian "octopus" were received with a number of serious impacts from law enforcement bodies of Italy and has noticeably lowered the influence.
Yakudza. Gangsters of Japan conduct the family tree from gangs of players of the middle 18 century (the term "yakudza" means one of combinations in gambling). The control over legal and illegal gamblings continues to remain one of the major clauses of their incomes and in modern Japan.
In first half 20 century yakudza supervised the organizations of building and port unskilled workers. In post-war decades they have mastered underground usury and pornobiznes, from the beginning of 1970 incomes leading by clause yakudza became narkobiznes.
Though the Japanese mafia ancient Sicilian and American, its organizational registration took place only in the end 1960 when leaders of criminal syndicates have organized a meeting and during negotiations have divided spheres of influence. The leading part among several thousand gangs is played with three large organizations (the largest - " Yamaguti gumi "), on whose share is necessary a greater share of all members yakudza.
Specificity of the Japanese model of the organized crime that the gangster organizations function quite legally, similarly to usual firms. Cards of gangsters are decorated by an emblem of a gang, everyone has the official hymns, the largest syndicates have own printed editions and even pay to the members pension grants. Therefore partial transformation yakudza in a version "belovorotnichkovoi" criminality has passed in 1980 very easily. In 1990 mass refusal yakudza to return the large credits received from the financial organizations for financing of construction and operations with the real estate (it is a question of the sums of the order 350-800 billion dollars), became one of the reasons of the largest bank crisis.
Yakudza show curious paradox: in Japan the organized criminals per capita it is appreciable more, than in the USA, Italy or Russia, however public harm from them it is appreciable below. The Japanese police considers yakudza not so much as the inveterate criminals challenging to a society, how much as the effective allies in restraint of unorganized criminality (some kind of alternative police). Japan shows that model of coexistence of a modern society and the modern organized crime which to many researchers seems to the optimal for both parties.
" Russian mafia ". Community " thieves in the law " - the oldest and known criminal grouping of Russia. Though abroad usually write about " Russian mafia ", this term is inexact, as the majority of criminal authorities on our country belong to various national minorities (first of all, to people of Caucasus).
Formation of community " thieves in the law " carry to the end 1920 - to the beginning 1930. It has occured in jails, that for the "normal" organized crime is absolutely abnormal. Its members originally were engaged especially "pereraspredelitel'noi" in activity (pocket thefts, larceny, robberies). However this community could achieve very high degree of self-organizing which abroad arose only in the criminal organizations of modern type.
Members of "thieves'" community were united with rigid enough arch of informal rules - " thieves' concepts ":
Strict corporate solidarity (" the thief in the law " cannot even zamahnut'sya on "colleague", not that to give on it investigatory indications);
Prohibition to have any contacts to authorities (for example to serve in army);
Prohibition to be engaged in usual work (even in places of imprisonment);
Duty to supervise behaviour of all other criminals in jails;
Refusal of personal property (ideal " the thief in the law " has no anything the, he receives means or from criminal operations in which realization the role of the organizer plays, but not the executor, or from "voluntary-obligatory" deductions of other criminals).
Originally " thieves in the law " were the original criminal government organized on communal principles and informally operating jails. It is natural, that official Soviet bodies did not wish to be reconciled with "diarchy". During the fierce reprisals against carriers of thieves' traditions in 1950, and also civil strifes inside of most " a thieves' award " (" such'ya war "), the first generation " thieves in the law " has appeared almost completely is liquidated. However soon this organization has unexpectedly found " the second breath ".
After wide expansion in 1960 shadow business "cehovikov" (so named heads of state enterprises who organized manufacture of not considered scarce goods for realization "on the left") professional criminals have started to specialize in the USSR any more on pocket thefts, and on a robbery of underground businessmen. From a robbery "cehovikov" the Soviet gangsters send to classical racket - to gathering of constant "tribute" in exchange for guarantees of protection. The important boundary in history of the domestic organized crime became a joint meeting " thieves in the law " and "cehovikov" in 1979 in Kislovodsk when unorganized requisitions have been replaced by systematic payment by underground businessmen of 10 % from their incomes in exchange for the guaranteed safety from the underworld.
Since then and up to 2000 basic kind of incomes of the Russian organized crime there is a racket - collection of requisitions for safety all over again with illegal, and from the end 1980 and from the majority of legal businessmen. As businessmen did not receive some essential legal support, they have been doomed to appear " in embraces " mafias. To the middle 1990 under the control of " gangster roofs " was, by some estimations, about 85 % of all commercial enterprises - in effect everything, except for borrowed by security business or law enforcement bodies working under the direct patronage.
In the end 1990 in manufacture of security services gangsters have collided with a strong competition of legal commercial security agencies, and also kommercializirovannyh the state power structures. After that " Russian mafia " began to lose gradually a role of the absolute leader in protection of the property rights. The growing share in its incomes in 2000 is borrowed with usual criminal crafts, characteristic and for the modern foreign criminal organizations. The domestic organized crime all is engaged economic ("belovorotnichkovymi") in crimes, narkobiznesom, traffic in arms and antiques, pornobiznesom and much to others more actively. That of the criminal government " Russian mafia " in 2000 gradually turns to "usual" set of criminal firms.
Display of the strong changes occuring in " Russian mafia ", are changes in the environment " thieves in the law ". By the end of 1990 presents " thieves in the law " have started to disappear. In process of kommercializacii mafias the old "concepts", forbidding to have the property and the legal status, began to stir only. Though in prisons and camps the shadow authority " thieves in the law " is saved, over criminal business is dominated with the new "authorities" ("gangsters") who are not recognizing " thieves' concepts ".
The domestic mafia is numerous enough, but on a degree of organization noticeably concedes to foreign "samples". The quantity of the organized criminal groups is measured by thousand, however the present criminal communities (large, stable, with the inter-regional and international communications, having people in authorities) is appreciable less. According to Central administrative board on struggle against the organized crime of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, in the middle of 1990 them it was totaled in Russia of the order 150, they united approximately 12 thousand person. " Thieves' a meeting " still remain the main institute of criminal management. The central coordinating body as American "commission" it is not created yet, and hardly it is necessary to expect in the near future of its occurrence. Known amorphy, however, does not stir to active adjustment of contacts of large Russian groupings with leading world criminal communities.
Development of a market economy at stabilization of political authority conducts always to that the organized crime borrows the " a lawful place " in a society, turns from system of criminal authority to a network of criminal firms. This transformation of " Russian mafia " is not completed yet, but the vector of development was precisely designated already in the end 1990 when the rate has started to dominate over strengthening of political one-man management.
Struggle against a mafia. The organized crime often name the kind of criminal activity most dangerous to a society. However many criminologists mark, that some purposes of the organized crime coincide with the purposes of a society is a minimization of gangster civil strifes and applications of violence. Some scientists do even a conclusion, that the organized crime under some conditions is more useful, than unorganized, the reasonable compromise with a mafia therefore is necessary.
As American economist-criminologist Mankur Olson, the rational criminal-single, engaged larceny or a robbery wrote, practically is not interested absolutely not in well-being of the victims and consequently will take away at all of them, that only it is possible. The situation essentially varies, when instead of many wandering from one area in another of gangsters-singles there is one criminal organization monopolizing criminal activity in any territory. That mafia "family" had stably high incomes, it is necessary for her to care of prosperity of local residents and businessmen. Therefore rational mafia "family" a-monopolist will not steal or plunder in the territory itself and will not allow to do it to extraneous criminals. Instead of it the criminal organization maximizes the income, trading in protection against crimes, which she is ready to make itself (if to her will not pay), and crimes which will be made by other criminals (if she will not frighten off them). Logic model Olsona convinces, that from cleanly economic point of view and criminals, and legislative citizens are interested in the maximal monopolization of criminal crafts.
Economists-criminologists prove, in such a manner that the organized crime (monopolization of criminal crafts) is more preferable than criminality to a society disorganized (the competitive organization of criminal crafts). They warn against populist "crusades" on the organized crime, offering police to struggle mainly with usual, unorganized criminals who make the majority of criminal murders and other grave crimes.
Such "justification" of the organized crime, however, has weaknesses. First, the problem of national economic safety is ignored: strengthening of the organized crime weakens the state (it is brightly visible on examples of Colombia, Sicily and Russia 1990). Secondly, development of the organized crime brakes development of business as criminal "tribute" distracts means from industrial investments. It is possible to formulate a conclusion, that at weakness of the state domination of the organized crime can be better criminal "bespredela", but at the strong state the organized crime is more dangerous, than usual. Therefore worldwide with the organized crime struggle is actively conducted.
Cleanly power methods of struggle against a mafia give the limited result. On the one hand, in the open antagonism with the state any criminal organization inevitably sooner or later suffers defeat (it is possible to recollect history Medel'inskogo of cartel or the Sicilian mafia). However liquidating the concrete criminal boss or the concrete criminal organization, it is impossible to destroy the organized crime. While there is a demand for the criminal goods, the place of the liquidated Mafiosis will be borrowed with new criminals. Therefore now the strategic purpose of law enforcement bodies - not liquidation of the organized crime, and restriction of its activity.
For restraint of a mafia cleanly economic receptions - restriction of "money-laundering" and legalization of criminal crafts are most effective. If it is difficult to mafia to legalize criminal capitals it is more favourable to grown rich criminals to pass in legal business. If the criminal craft becomes legal (as it has occured to prostitution and trade in easy drugs in Holland) the mafia in general loses a source of incomes. However application of both these receptions has restrictions. Completely to stop "money-laundering" it is impossible, as toughening of the control over contributions and remittances brakes development of bank business. It is impossible and to legalize completely all the forbidden goods and services (we shall tell, custom-made murders). Therefore the organized crime still will exist very long as an inevitable harm to which it is possible to limit, but it is impossible to liquidate.